Detection of Sleep Disordered Breathing and Its Central/Obstructive Character Using Nasal Cannula and Finger Pulse Oximeter
1Center for Sleep and Wake Disorders, Institute of Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Sweden; 2Institute for Monitoring, Diagnosis and Assistance (IMDA), SRH University of Applied Science Heidelberg, Germany; 3Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe, Germany
To assess the accuracy of novel algorithms using an oximeter-based finger plethysmographic signal in combination with a nasal cannula for the detection and differentiation of central and obstructive apneas. The validity of single pulse oximetry to detect respiratory disturbance events was also studied.
Patients recruited from four sleep laboratories underwent an ambulatory overnight cardiorespiratory polygraphy recording. The nasal flow and photoplethysmographic signals of the recording were analyzed by automated algorithms. The apnea hypopnea index (AHIauto) was calculated using both signals, and a respiratory disturbance index (RDIauto) was calculated from photoplethysmography alone. Apnea events were classified into obstructive and central types using the oximeter derived pulse wave signal and compared with manual scoring.
Sixty-six subjects (42 males, age 54 ± 14 yrs, body mass index 28.5 ± 5.9 kg/m2) were included in the analysis. AHImanual (19.4 ± 18.5 events/h) correlated highly significantly with AHIauto (19.9 ± 16.5 events/h) and RDIauto (20.4 ± 17.2 events/h); the correlation coefficients were r = 0.94 and 0.95, respectively (p < 0.001) with a mean difference of −0.5 ± 6.6 and −1.0 ± 6.1 events/h. The automatic analysis of AHIauto and RDIauto detected sleep apnea (cutoff AHImanual ≥ 15 events/h) with a sensitivity/specificity of 0.90/0.97 and 0.86/0.94, respectively. The automated obstructive/central apnea indices correlated closely with manually scoring (r = 0.87 and 0.95, p < 0.001) with mean difference of −4.3 ± 7.9 and 0.3 ± 1.5 events/h, respectively.
Automatic analysis based on routine pulse oximetry alone may be used to detect sleep disordered breathing with accuracy. In addition, the combination of photoplethysmographic signals with a nasal flow signal provides an accurate distinction between obstructive and central apneic events during sleep.
Sommermeyer D; Zou D; Grote L; Hedner J. Detection of sleep disordered breathing and its central/obstructive character using nasal cannula and finger pulse oximeter. J Clin Sleep Med 2012;8(5):527-533.
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