Olanow CW, Stern MB, Sethi K, authors. The scientific and clinical basis for the treatment of Parkinson disease. Neurology. 2009;72(21 Suppl 4):S1–136.
Barone P, Antonini A, Colosimo C, et al., authors. The PRIAMO study: A multicenter assessment of nonmotor symptoms and their impact on quality of life in Parkinson's disease. Mov Disord. 2009;24:1641–9. [PubMed]
Hughes TA, Ross HF, Musa S, et al., authors. A 10-year study of the incidence of and factors predicting dementia in Parkinson's disease. Neurology. 2000;54:1596–603. [PubMed]
Chaudhuri K, Healy DG, Schapira AHV, authors. Non-motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease: diagnosis and management. Lancet Neurol. 2006;5:235–45. [PubMed]
Findley L, Aujla M, Bain PG, et al., authors. Direct economic impact of Parkinson's disease: a research survey in the United Kingdom. Mov Disord. 2003;18:1139–45. [PubMed]
Findley L, Eichhorn T, Janca A, et al., authors. Factors impacting on quality of life in Parkinso's disease: results from an international survey. Mov Disord. 2002;17:60–7. [PubMed]
Hely MA, Morris JGL, Reid WGJ, Trafficante R, authors. Sydney multicenter study of Parkinson's disease: Non L dopa-responsive problems dominate at 15 years. Mov Disord. 2005;20:190–9. [PubMed]
Lees AJ, Blackburn NA, Campbell VL, authors. The nighttime problems of Parkinson's disease. Clin Neuropharmacol. 1988;11:512. [PubMed]
Gjerstad MD, Wentzel-Larsen T, Aarsland D, larsen JP, authors. Insomnia in Parkinson's disease: frequency and progression over time. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2007;78:476. [PubMed Central][PubMed]
Tandberg E, Larsen JP, Karlsen K, authors. A community-based study of sleep disorders in patients with Parkinson's disease. Mov Disord. 1998;13:895–9. [PubMed]
Karlsen KH, Tandberg E, Arsland D, larsen JP, authors. Health related quality of life in Parkinson's disease: a prospective longitudinal study. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2000;69:584. [PubMed Central][PubMed]
Arnulf I, Konofal E, merino-andreu m, et al., authors. Parkinson's disease and sleepiness: an integral part of PD. Neurology. 2002;58:1019–24. [PubMed]
Zoccolella S, Savarese M, Lamberti P, Manni R, Pacchetti C, Logroscino G, authors. Sleep disorders and the natural history of Parkinson's disease: the contribution of epidemiological studies. Sleep Med Rev. 2010;15:41–50. [PubMed]
Norlinah MI, Afidah K, Noradina AT, et al., authors. Sleep disturbances in Malaysian patients with Parkinson's disease using polysomnography and PDSS. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2009;15:670–4. [PubMed]
Maria B, Sophia S, Michalis M, et al., authors. Sleep breathing disorders in patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease. Respir Med. 2003;97:1151–7. [PubMed]
De Cock VC, Abouda M, Leu S, et al., authors. Is obstructive sleep apnea a problem in Parkinson's disease? Sleep Med. 2010;11:247–52. [PubMed]
Chokroverty S, author. Sleep and neurologic degenerative disorders. Neurol Clin. 1996;14:807–26. [PubMed]
Wetter TC, Collado-Seidel V, Pollmacher T, Yassouridis A, Trenkwalder C, authors. Sleep and periodic leg movement patterns in drug-free patients with Parkinson's disease and multiple system atrophy. Sleep. 2000;23:361–7. [PubMed]
Oerlemans WGH, de Weerd AW, authors. The prevalence of sleep disorders in patients with Parkinson's disease: A self-reported, community-based survey. Sleep Med. 2002;3:147–9. [PubMed]
Ondo WG, Vuong KD, Jankovic J, authors. Exploring the relationship between Parkinson disease and restless legs syndrome. Arch Neurol. 2002;59:421. [PubMed]
Braga-Neto P, da Silva-Junior FP, Sueli Monte F, de Bruin PFC, de Bruin VMS, authors. Snoring and excessive daytime sleepiness in Parkinson's disease. J Neurol Sci. 2004;217:41–5. [PubMed]
Rothdach AJ, Trenkwalder C, Haberstock J, Keil U, Berger K, authors. Prevalence and risk factors of RLS in an elderly population: the MEMO study. Memory and Morbidity in Augsburg Elderly. Neurology. 2000;54:1064–8. [PubMed]
Allen RP, Walters AS, Montplaisir J, et al., authors. Restless legs syndrome prevalence and impact: REST general population study. Arch Intern Med. 2005;165:1286. [PubMed]
Plazzi G, Corsini R, Provini F, et al., authors. REM sleep behavior disorders in multiple system atrophy. Neurology. 1997;48:1094–7. [PubMed]
Iranzo A, Santamaria J, Tolosa E, authors. The clinical and pathophysiological relevance of REM sleep behavior disorder in neurodegenerative diseases. Sleep Med Rev. 2009;13:385–401. [PubMed]
Walters AS, Aldrich MS, Allen R, et al., authors. Toward a better definition of the restless legs syndrome. The International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group. Mov Disord. 1995;10:634–42. [PubMed]
Ancoli-Israel S, Coy TV, authors. Are breathing disturbances in elderly equivalent to sleep apnea syndrome? Sleep. 1994;17:77–83. [PubMed]
Shepard JW Jr, author. Hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, myocardial infarction, and stroke in relation to obstructive sleep apnea. Clin Chest Med. 1992;13:437–58. [PubMed]
Redline S, Strauss ME, Adams N, et al., authors. Neuropsychological function in mild sleep-disordered breathing. Sleep. 1997;20:160–7. [PubMed]
Karlsen K, Larsen JP, Tandberg E, Maeland JG, authors. Influence of clinical and demographic variables on quality of life in patients with Parkinson's disease. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1999;66:431–5. [PubMed Central][PubMed]
Arnulf I, Bonnet AM, Damier P, et al., authors. Hallucinations, REM sleep, and Parkinson's disease. Neurology. 2000;55:281–8. [PubMed]
Nomura T, Inoue Y, Mitani H, Kawahara R, Miyake M, Nakashima K, authors. Visual hallucinations as REM sleep behavior disorders in patients with Parkinson's disease. Mov Disord. 2003;18:812–7. [PubMed]
Pacchetti C, Manni R, Zangaglia R, et al., authors. Relationship between hallucinations, delusions, and rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder in Parkinson's disease. Mov Disord. 2005;20:1439–48. [PubMed]
Sinforiani E, Zangaglia R, Manni R, et al., authors. REM sleep behavior disorder, hallucinations, and cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease. Mov Disord. 2006;21:462–6. [PubMed]
Vendette M, Gagnon JF, Decary A, et al., authors. REM sleep behavior disorder predicts cognitive impairment in Parkinson disease without dementia. Neurology. 2007;69:1843–9. [PubMed]
Sixel-Doring F, Trautmann E, Mollenhauer B, Trenkwalder C, authors. Associated factors for REM sleep behavior disorder in Parkinson disease. Neurology. 2011;77:1048–54. [PubMed]
Postuma RB, Gagnon JF, Vendette M, Charland K, Montplaisir J, authors. REM sleep behaviour disorder in Parkinson's disease is associated with specific motor features. J Neuro Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2008;79:1117–21.
Postuma RB, Gagnon JF, Vendette M, Charland K, Montplaisir J, authors. Manifestations of Parkinson disease differ in association with REM sleep behavior disorder. Mov Disord. 2008;23:1665–72. [PubMed]
Covassin N, Neikrug AB, Liu L, et al., authors. Clinical correlates of periodic limb movements in sleep in Parkinson's disease. J Neurol Sci. 2012;316:131–6. [PubMed Central][PubMed]
Fahn S, Elton RL, authors; UPDRS Program Members. Fahn S, Marsden CD, Goldstein M, Calne DB, editors. Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale. Recent developments in Parkinson's disease. 1987. vol 2. Florham Park, NJ: Macmillian Healthcare Information; p. 153–63.
Hoehn MM, Yahr MD, authors. Parkinsonism: onset, progression and mortality. Neurology. 1967;17:427–42. [PubMed]
Stiasny-Kolster K, Mayer G, Schafer S, Moller JC, Heinzel-Gutenbrunner M, Oertel WH, authors. The REM sleep behavior disorder screening questionnaire - a new diagnostic instrument. Mov Disord. 2007;22:2386–93. [PubMed]
American Academy of Sleep Medicine. The international classification of sleep disorders. 2005. 2nd ed. Westchester, IL: American Academy of Sleep Medicine.
Miller DH, author. Biomarkers and surrogate outcomes in neurodegenerative disease: lessons from multiple sclerosis. NeuroRx. 2004;1:284–94. [PubMed Central][PubMed]
Tomlinson CL, Stowe R, Patel S, Rick C, Gray R, Clarke CE, authors. Systematic review of levodopa dose equivalency reporting in Parkinson's disease. Mov Disord. 2010;25:2649–53. [PubMed]
Nasreddine ZS, Phillips NA, Bedirian V, et al., authors. The Montreal cognitive assessment, MoCA: a brief screening tool for mild cognitive impairment. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2005;53:695. [PubMed]
Gill DJ, Freshman A, Blender JA, Ravina B, authors. The Montreal cognitive assessment as a screening tool for cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease. Mov Disord. 2008;23:1043–6. [PubMed]
Zadikoff C, Fox SH, Tang-Wai DF, et al., authors. A comparison of the mini mental state exam to the Montreal cognitive assessment in identifying cognitive deficits in Parkinson's disease. Mov Disord. 2008;23:297–9. [PubMed]
Chaudhuri KR, Martinez-Martin P, Schapira AH, et al., authors. International multicenter pilot study of the first comprehensive self-completed non-motor symptoms questionnaire for Parkinson's Disease: The NMSQuest Study. Mov Disord. 2006;21:916–23. [PubMed]
Chaudhuri K, Martinez Martin P, authors. Quantitation of non motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease. Eur J Neurol. 2008;15:2–8.
Beck AT, Steer RA, Brown GK, authors. Manual for Beck Depression Inventory-Second edition. 1996. San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation.
Beck AT, Steer RA, Garbin MG, authors. Psychometric properties of the Beck Depression Inventory: Twenty-five years of evaluation. Clin Psychol Rev. 1988;8:77–100.
Richter P, Werner J, Heerlein A, Kraus A, Sauer H, authors. On the validity of the Beck Depression Inventory. Psychopathology. 1998;31:160–8. [PubMed]
Levin BE, Llabre MM, Weiner WJ, authors. Parkinson's disease and depression: psychometric properties of the Beck Depression Inventory. J Neuro Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1988;51:1401.
Reiff J, Schmidt N, Riebe B, et al., authors. Subthreshold depression in Parkinson's disease. Mov Disord. 2011;26:1741–4. [PubMed]
Schwarz J, Odin P, Buhmann C, et al., authors. Depression in Parkinson's disease. J Neurol. 2011;258:336–8.
Peto V, Jenkinson C, Fitzpatrick R, authors. PDQ-39: a review of the development, validation and application of a Parkinson's disease quality of life questionnaire and its associated measures. J Neurol. 1998;245:S10–S14. [PubMed]
Johns MW, author. A new method for measuring daytime sleepiness: The Epworth sleepiness scale. Sleep. 1991;14:540–5. [PubMed]
Stein KD, Martin SC, Hann DM, Jacobsen PB, authors. A multidimensional measure of fatigue for use with cancer patients. Cancer Pract. 1998;6:143–52. [PubMed]
Chaudhuri KR, Pal S, DiMarco A, et al., authors. The Parkinson's disease sleep scale: a new instrument for assessing sleep and nocturnal disability in Parkinson's disease. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2002;73:629–35. [PubMed Central][PubMed]
Chaudhuri KR, Martinez-Martin P, authors. Clinical assessment of nocturnal disability in Parkinson's disease: the Parkinson's Disease Sleep Scale. Neurology. 2004;63 Suppl 3:S17–S20. [PubMed]
Iber C, Ancoli-Israel S, Chesson A, Quan SF, authors. The AASM manual for the scoring of sleep and associated events: rules, terminology and technical specifications. 2007. Westchester, IL: American Academy of Sleep Medicine.
Lapierre O, Montplaisir J, authors. Polysomnographic features of REM sleep behavior disorder: development of a scoring method. Neurology. 1992;42:1371–4. [PubMed]
Consens FB, Chervin RD, Koeppe RA, et al., authors. Validation of a polysomnographic score for REM sleep behavior disorder. Sleep. 2005;28:993–7. [PubMed]
Meyers LS, Gamst G, Guarino AJ, authors. Applied multivariate research: Design and interpretation. 2006. Sage Publications, Inc.
Cohen J, author. Applied multiple regression/correlation analysis for the behavioral sciences. 2003. 1 ed. Lawrence Erlbaum.
Gjerstad MD, Boeve B, Wentzel-Larsen T, Aarsland D, larsen JP, authors. Occurrence and clinical correlates of REM sleep behaviour disorder in patients with Parkinson's disease over time. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2008;79:387–91. [PubMed]
Bugalho P, da Silva JA, Neto B, authors. Clinical features associated with REM sleep behavior disorder symptoms in the early stages of Parkinson's disease. J Neurol. 2011;258:50–5. [PubMed]
Neikrug AB, Ancoli-Israel S, authors. Diagnostic Tools for REM Sleep Behavior Disorder. Sleep Med Rev. 2012;16:415–29. [PubMed Central][PubMed]
Happe S, Reese JP, Stiasny-Kolster K, et al., authors. Assessing health-related quality of life in patients with restless legs syndrome. Sleep Med. 2009;10:295–305. [PubMed]
Beebe DW, Groesz L, Wells C, Nichols A, McGee K, authors. The neuropsychological effects of obstructive sleep apnea: a meta- analysis of norm-referenced and case-controlled data. Sleep. 2003;26:298–307. [PubMed]
Ancoli-Israel S, Klauber MR, Butters N, Parker L, Kripke DF, authors. Dementia in institutionalized elderly: Relation to sleep apnea. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1991;39:258–63. [PubMed]
Cohen-Zion M, Stepnowsky C, Marler M, Shochat T, Kripke DF, Ancoli-Israel S, authors. Changes in cognitive function associated with sleep disordered breathing in older people. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2001;49:1622–7. [PubMed]
Foley DJ, Masaki K, White L, Larkin EK, Monjan A, Redline S, authors. Sleep-disordered breathing and cognitive impairment in elderly Japanese-American men. Sleep. 2003;26:596–9. [PubMed]
Cheshire K, Engleman H, Deary I, Shapiro C, Douglas NJ, authors. Factors impairing daytime performance in patients with sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome. Arch Intern Med. 1992;152:538–41. [PubMed]
Blackwell T, Yaffe K, Ancoli-Israel S, et al., authors. Associations between sleep architecture and sleep-disordered breathing and cognition in older community-dwelling men: the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men Sleep Study. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2011;59:2217–25. [PubMed Central][PubMed]
Kielb SA, Ancoli-Israel S, Rebok GW, Spira AP, authors. Cognition in obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAS): current clinical knowledge and the impact of treatment. Neuromolecular Med. 2012;14:180–93. [PubMed]
Spira AP, Blackwell T, Stone KL, et al., authors. Sleep disordered breathing and cognition in older women. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2008;56:45–50. [PubMed]
Yaffe K, Laffan AM, Harrison SL, et al., authors. Sleep-disordered breathing, hypoxia, and risk of mild cognitive impairment and dementia in older women. JAMA. 2011;306:613–9. [PubMed Central][PubMed]
Neikrug AB, Liu L, Avanzino J, et al., authors. Continuous positive airway pressure improves sleep and daytime sleepiness in Parkinson's patients with sleep apnea. Sleep. 2013;in press.
Bliwise DL, Rye DB, Dihenia BH, et al., authors. Periodic leg movements in sleep in elderly patients with parkinsonism. Sleep. 1998;21 Suppl:196.
Nofzinger EA, author. Neuroimaging of sleep and sleep disorders. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep. 2006;6:149–55. [PubMed]
Politis M, Piccini P, Pavese N, Koh SB, Brooks DJ, authors. Evidence of dopamine dysfunction in the hypothalamus of patients with Parkinson's disease: an in vivo 11C-raclopride PET study. Exp Neurol. 2008;214:112–6. [PubMed]
Kaynaka D, Kiziltana G, Kaynaka H, Benbira G, Uysalb O, authors. Sleep and sleepiness in patients with Parkinson's disease before and after dopaminergic treatment. Eur J Neurol. 2005;12:199–207. [PubMed]
Garcia-Borreguero D, Larrosa O, Bravo M, authors. Parkinson's disease and sleep. Sleep Med Rev. 2003;7:115–29. [PubMed]
Schenck CH, Bundlie SR, Mahowald MW, authors. Delayed emergence of a parkinsonian disorder in 38% of 29 older men initially diagnosed with idiopathoc rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder. Neurology. 1996;46:388–93. [PubMed]
Bliwise DL, Watts RL, Watts N, Rye DB, Irbe D, Hughes M, authors. Disruptive nocturnal behavior in Parkinson's disease and Alzeimer's disease. J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol. 1995;8:107–10. [PubMed]
Leroi I, Baker P, Kehoe P, Daniel E, Byrne EJ, authors. A pilot randomized controlled trial of sleep therapy in Parkinson's disease: effect on patients and caregivers. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2010;25:1073–9. [PubMed]
Sixel-Doring F, Schweitzer M, Mollenhauer B, Trenkwalder C, authors. Intraindividual variability of REM sleep behavior disorder in Parkinson's disease: a comparative assessment using a new REM sleep behavior disorder severity scale (RBDSS) for clinical routine. J Clin Sleep Med. 2011;7:75–80. [PubMed Central][PubMed]
Eisensehr I, Lindeiner H, Jager M, Noachtar S, authors. REM sleep behavior disorder in sleep-disordered patients with versus without Parkinson's disease: is there a need for polysomnography? J Neurol Sciences. 2001;186:7–11.