Comparison of Polysomnographic and Clinical Presentations and Predictors for Cardiovascular-Related Diseases between Non-Obese and Obese Obstructive Sleep Apnea among Asians
1Excellence Center for Sleep Disorders, King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital/Thai Red Cross Society, Bangkok, Thailand; 2Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand; 3Department of Otolaryngology and Ophthalmology, Naresuan University, Phitsanulok, Thailand; 4Department of Otolaryngology, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand; 5Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Hospital Raja Permaisuri Bainun, Ipoh, Perak, Malaysia; 6Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand; 7Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand
Unlike Caucasians, many Asians with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are non-obese but are affected by the disease due to predisposing craniofacial structure. Therefore, non-obese and obese OSA may represent different disease entities. The associated risk factors for developing cardiovascular-related diseases, consequently, may be considered separately for the two types of OSA.
We reviewed polysomnographic studies performed in adults (aged ≥ 18 years) diagnosed with OSA (respiratory disturbance index [RDI] ≥ 5). We divided the patients into obese (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 25) and non-obese (BMI < 25) groups. We aimed to determine the differences between these two groups in terms of clinical presentations, polysomno-graphic findings, and association with cardiovascular-related diseases including hypertension, diabetes mellitus, coronary artery disease, and/or cerebrovascular disease.
Among 194 patients with OSA (RDI ≥ 5), 63.4% were non-obese and 36.6% were obese. Compared with obese OSA patients, non-obese OSA patients were noted to have smaller neck size, less prevalence of hypertension, and less history of frequent nocturia (> 3-4/week), with equal prevalence of excessive daytime sleepiness. Overall, non-obese OSA patients were noted to have milder disease indicated by lower total, supine, and non-supine, NREM RDI and higher mean and nadir oxygen saturations. In the non-obese group, only total obstructive apnea index (OAI) was noted to be a predictor for developing any of the cardiovascular-related diseases after controlling for age, sex, and RDI (odds ratio = 9.7). However, in the obese OSA group, frequent snoring (> 50% of total sleep time), low sleep efficiency (≤ 90%), and low mean oxygen saturation (< 95%) were noted to be significant predictors of cardiovascular-related diseases (odds ratios = 12.3, 4.2, and 5.2, respectively).
Among Asians, most OSA patients were not obese. Compared to obese OSA patients, non-obese OSA patients were noted to have less prevalence of hypertension and less history of nocturia. They were also noted to have overall milder OSA. Only OAI was noted to be a significant predictor for cardiovascular-related disease in the non-obese OSA group.
Chirakalwasan N; Teerapraipruk B; Simon R; Hirunwiwatkul P; Jaimchariyatam N; Desudchit T; Charakorn N; Wanlapakorn C. Comparison of polysomnographic and clinical presentations and predictors for cardiovascular-related diseases between non-obese and obese obstructive sleep apnea among Asians. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(6):553-557.
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